|About the Book|
The purpose of this study was to compare two treatment conditions with kindergarten students at-risk for reading failure to determine whether accuracy instruction or accuracy plus fluency instruction, produced more fluent recall of consonant sounds,MoreThe purpose of this study was to compare two treatment conditions with kindergarten students at-risk for reading failure to determine whether accuracy instruction or accuracy plus fluency instruction, produced more fluent recall of consonant sounds, fluent reading of words with those sounds, and fluent reading of connected, controlled text. The assumption in designing this study was that, through conditions that emphasized fluency or just accuracy, letter-sound fluency would develop differentially between conditions. Then, the effects of differential fluency in letter-sounds would lead to different rates of proficiency in decoding words and result in differences in oral reading fluency of connected text aligned with words assigned to each condition. The basic assumption of this study was not met when initial assessment demonstrated that three of the four students had already acquired fluency in letter-sound correspondences across conditions. The study was carried out to see if the focused practice on letter-sound fluency and word reading fluency might still result in a separation by condition. When word reading fluency did not increase in either condition across students, a second phase to the study increasing the emphasis on fluent sound-by-sound blending was introduced to determine if a change in procedure might enhance word reading fluency.-To compare conditions, a multi-element design (Kennedy, 2005) was used. Measures were taken on letter-sound fluency, word reading fluency, and oral reading fluency using the consonants and words assigned to each condition along with vowels and sight words across both conditions. Results suggest that one student established a functional relationship between conditions in letter-sound fluency favoring the accuracy plus fluency condition. No functional relationship was established for letter-sound fluency for the other students, and for word reading fluency and oral reading fluency for all students. A comparison of means for Phase 1 and Phase 2 maintained that when Phase 2 procedures emphasizing word blending were in place there were accompanying increases across all measures for all students except letter-sound fluency in the accuracy condition for one student. In addition, all students increased their fluency scores from pretest and posttest on AIMSweb Letter Sound Fluency and Nonsense Word Fluency subtests.